Some facts about Black holes in the Universe

 

Black holes are essential component in the universe. Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space. A black hole is a place in space, where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying. People can’t see the black holes because no light can get out. They are invisible. Space telescopes with special tools can help to find black holes. They are objects of extreme density; with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough. A black hole has only three independent physical properties mass, charge and angular momentum.

The German physicist Karl Schwarzschild was the first to discover black holes in 1916. Albert Einstein first predicted black holes in 1916 with his general theory of relativity. The term ‘black hole’ was coined in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler. Though the term black hole was only coined in 1967, it was described in fictions, comics and novels long time ago. Many works of fiction used ideas or concepts with features similar to the idea of a black hole. Its history goes back in late 18th centuries. Science fiction stories describe one or two features of black holes accurately, but display a naive view of them overall.

The space telescope with special tools can be used to see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than over stars. When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made. This kind of light cannot be seen with human eyes. Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see the high-energy light. Powerful NASA telescope found ten super massive black holes. But it found accidentally.

With regard to the size of black holes, they can be big or small. Scientist thing the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. There are three types of black holes. They are stellar black holes, super massive black holes and intermediate black holes.

 

Stellar black holes: when a star burns through the last of its fuel, it may find its self collapsing. Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the mass of the sun. There may be many, many stellar mass black holes in Earth’s galaxy.

 

Super massive black holes: The largest black holes are called ‘super massive’. These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a super massive black hole at its center. The super massive black hole at the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius. It has a mass equal to about 4 million Suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths. Super massive black holes may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge together.

 

Intermediate black holes: Scientists once thought black holes came in only small and large sizes, but resent result has revealed the possibility for the existence of midsize , or intermediate, black holes. Such bodies could from when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction.

 

Black holes do not go around in space eating stars, moons and planets. Earth will not fall into a black hole because no black hole is close enough to the solar system for earth to do that. The sun will never turn into a black hole because the sun not big enough star to make a black hole. Black holes do not suck. Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive black hole definitely is not. Instead of that, objects fall into them.

Black holes provide an important tool for probing and testing the fundamental laws of the universe. The properties of black holes have caused physicists to re-formulate their basic theories of matter. All objects exert an attractive gravitational force which depends on their mass. Now, imagine an object with a very large mass which is concentrated into such a small volume that the gravitational field generated is powerful enough to prevent anything from escaping its clutches even light. NASA is using satellites and telescopes that are traveling in space to learn more about black holes. These spacecraft will help scientists answer questions about the universe. Black hole solutions provide a powerful conduit in searching for a unified theory of Nature.

                                                                                                                                                                                 Vernusha Murugathas

  10D

Copyright © 2017 Science Union, Vembadi Girls' High School. All Rights Reserved.